5 de noviembre de 2011

What if you take an antipsychotic and a healthy person?

Neuroleptic Poisoning


·                  Neuroleptics (antipsychotics) used for management of:

o                Psychotic disorders

o                Agitation

o                Dementia in the elderly

o                Behavioral problems in children

o                Antiemetic

·                  Acute overdose:

o                Symptoms usually mild to moderate

o                CNS symptoms predominate

·                  Dystonic reactions (dystonia):

o                Most common adverse effect

o                Occurs during chronic therapy or within 48 hours of starting medication

·                  Akathisia:

o                Patient has motor restlessness and feels a need to pace or move constantly

o                Occurs within days to weeks of starting medication

·                  Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS):

o                Idiosyncratic, life-threatening event

o                Occurs in cases of overdose, iatrogenic dose increase, and during the 1st weeks of usage

·                  Tardive dyskinesia:

o                Movement disorder usually affecting patients after years of taking neuroleptics

o                Treated by decreasing, discontinuing or changing the drug


Ziprasidone is a second generation anti-psychotic currently marketed under the brand name Geodon®. Ziprasidoneis available in 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg capsules as well as a reconstitutable injectable form of 20 mg/1.2 mL. Theoral capsule form, or ziprasidone hydrochloride, is indicated for bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia, and the intramuscularinjectable form, or ziprasidone mesylate, is indicated for acute agitation in schizophrenia. Ziprasidone isa serotonin (5HT)-2A/dopamine (D2) antagonist as well as a 5HT-1A agonist. It also antagonizes alpha-1 adrenergicand histamine receptors and inhibits norepinephrine reuptake.Ziprasidone overdoses rarely result in severe toxicity. Patients under the age of 12 can be observed at home if theingested dose is 80 mg or less. The toxic dose in adults is at least 100 mg, or five times the patients current singledose. Signs and symptoms of toxicity can range from mild sedation, vomiting, diarrhea, and miosis to hypotension,hypertension, tachycardia, dysrhythmias and coma. Ziprasidone is associated with dose-related QTc prolongation.Among all atypical antipsychotics ziprasidone is associated with the greatest degree of QTc prolongation. Ventricularfibrillation and Torsades de Points (TdP) are known risks when QTc prolongation occurs; however, there is noevidence that ziprasidone is associated with TdP. Most reported cases of ziprasidone overdose describe an onsetof symptoms occurring within a few hours of ingestion, but QTc prolongation may not be evident until 12 hours afterwards.Based on adverse effects reported following therapeutic use, the patient should also be observed forincreased liver enzymes (AST, ALT) and extrapyramidal symptoms. Should an acute overdose of ziprasidone occur, activated charcoal may be administered if the ingestion is recent.IV fluids and vasopressors (e.g. norepinephrine, phenylephrine) should be used to correct hypotension resulting from alpha-blockade; sympathomimetics with beta agonist activity such as epinephrine and dopamine should notbe used because of hypotension potentiation. Dystonic reactions are treated with benztropine or diphenhydramine.Although unlikely to occur, patients with QTc prolongation should be monitored for progression to TdP, especially ifother QTc-prolonging drugs are co-ingested. Cardioversion, repeat infusions of magnesium sulfate, overdrive pacingand treatment of electrolyte abnormalities should be considered if TdP occurs. Hemodialysis is not effective in ziprasidoneoverdoses due to its high level of protein binding and large volume of distribution

Quetiapine Poisoning:

CNS depression with sinus tachycardia

Atypical antipsychotic similar to clozapine

occasionally presents with hypotension and seizures

best review (Ann Emerg Med 2008;52(5):543)

QT prolongation

hypotension is common


long acting risperdal

can cause tachycardia long after initial ingestion time

(Ann Emerg Med 2011;58:80)


Although acute olanzapine overdose is predominantly associated with anticholinergic symptoms and central nervous system depression, miosis and unpredictable fluctuations between somnolence/coma and agitation/ aggression have been suggested as typical signs of olanzapine intoxication in single case reports.

  • dizziness, drowsiness
  • fatigue
  • dry mouth
  • weight gain
  • Notify your doctor right away if you experience:

    • muscle stiffness
    • spasms or twitching
    • any other involuntary movements of the face or tongue.

  • muscle stiffness, spasms or twitching, or any other involuntary movements of the face or tongue

  • Report any pounding heartbeat to your doctor immediately.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

1% of pts given neuroleptics

Excessive blockade of dopaminergic receptors

Altered mental status, hyperthermia, muscle rigidity (lead pipe) and autonomic dysfunction.

patients are often sweaty, drooling, and in rhabdo as well

Can happen anytime while taking the meds. Can also be seen c TCAs, Reglan, Reserpine, MAOI, Valium, Ativan, Dilantin and Tegratol

Discontinue agents

Active Cooling


Bromocryptine 5 mg PO then 2.5-10 mg po TID

Dantrolene 2-3 mg/kg IV Q6

Amantidine 100 mg PO Bid


The differentiation between NMS and SS is important, as treatment is quite different; cyproheptadine should not be used if NMS has not been excluded because of its dopaminergic-blocking effects. To help distinguish the two, recall:

· NMS usually develops over 3 to 9 days (may be as quick as 24-72 hours) while SS develops much more rapidly (hours)

· NMS is associated with neuroleptic drugs whereas SS is associated with serotonergic drugs

· NMS patients develop “lead-pipe” rigidity, whereas the rigidity in SS is much less severe

· NMS patients to do not exhibit clonus or nystagmus

Comparison of the Levenson5and the Nierenberg and colleagues4 diagnostic criteria for neuroleptic malignant syndrome Level of diagnostic criteria Levenson criteria Nierenberg and colleagues criteriaEssential Recent use of antipsychotic Recent use of antipsychotic OR Recent use of other dopaminergic agent OR Recent discontinuation of dopamine agonist Major Fever Fever (>38°C) without other cause Muscle rigidity Muscular lead-pipe rigidity Elevated CK (>1000 IU/L) Elevated serum CK (>3 times normal) Autonomic instability (2 or more of sweating, tachycardia, elevated or decreased blood pressure) Altered consciousness Minor Tachycardia Autonomic instability (incontinence, arrhythmias or 1 of the features under Major criteria not already accounted for) Diaphoresis Abnormal BP Tachypnea Respiratory distress (dyspnea, tachypnea, hypoxia or respiratory failure) Leukocytosis Leukocytosis (>12.0 × 109/L) Altered consciousness EPS (tremor, cogwheeling, dystonia or choreiform movements) No. of criterion required 3 Major 4 Major OR OR 2 Major + 4 Minor 3 Major + 3 Minor BP = blood pressure; CK = creatine kinase; EPS = extrapyramidal symptoms

Neurologic *Parkinson’s disease *Meningitis *Encephalitis Multiple system atrophy (Shy-Drager syndrome) Epilepsy Stroke Space-occupying lesions Cerebral vasculitis Metabolic Hyperthyroidism Hypocalcemia Hypomagnesemia Pheochromocytoma Psychiatric *Delirium *Depression / mania with catatonic features *Catatonic schizophrenia / psychosis Substance-induced catatonia Medication-induced *Serotonin syndrome *Extrapyramidal drug reactions Benign medication side-effects associated with atypical antipsychotics Rapid withdrawal of dopaminergic medications (e.g., levodopa) Dopamine depleting medications (e.g., reserpine, tetrabenazine) Lithium toxicity Allergic drug reactions Substance-induced / toxic *Anticholinergic poisoning Cocaine intoxication Phencyclidine intoxication Alcohol / benzodiazepine withdrawal Strychnine poisoning Other conditions *Heat stroke Malignant hyperthermia Acute intermittent porphyria Systemic lupus erythematosus Tetanus Botulism *Common causes of NMS-like symptoms